Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the common endocrine disorder affecting 7 - 14% women of reproductive age. This is associated with central obesity, insulin resistance,
type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Chronic anovulation, infertility and hyperandrogenism are its main characteristics. Weight reduction and physical exercise are recommended as first-line treatment in
PCOS, with the aim of prevent cardiovascular disease and restore ovarian function. The purpose of this study was investigate the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) on anthropometric
indices (AI), body fat percentage (% BF) and muscle strength (MS) in women with and without PCOS, and its effects on metabolic factors and steroid hormone concentrations related to PCOS. This is a
nonrandomized, therapeutic, open, single-arm study.
Methods: 45 sedentary women with PCOS and 52 non-PCOS/control group (CG), with 18 - 37 years old and body mass indices (BMIs) between 18 - 39.9 Kg/m2, received PRT through a linear
periodization three times a week for four months, that followed trend of decreasing volume and increasing intensity throughout the training period. The exercises included bench press, leg extension,
front lat pull-down, leg curl, lateral raise, leg press (45°), triceps pulley, calf leg press, arm curl, and abdominal exercise executed in alternating segments. Before and after PRT, the
concentrations hormones, metabolic factors, maximal dynamic strength (1-RM) tests in exercise bench press (trunk), leg extension (lower limb) and arm curl (upper limb) were realized. Were measurement
AI (BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), umbilical (UWC) and conicity index (C-index)), %BF and sum of 4 skinfold thickness ( 4DC - trunk
(subscapular and supra-iliac), upper limb (triceps) and lower limb (thigh)) by antropometry. Menstrual regularity was recorded before, during and after PRT. Data were analyzed statistically by mixed
effects linear regression. To post-test comparisons was used orthogonal contrasts. Level of significance P <0.05.
Results: After PRT, testosterone reduced (PCOS, P<0.01; CG, P<0.01) and fasting glucose levels improved in both groups (PCOS, P<0.01; CG, P=0.03). Androstedione increased (P<0.01)
compared to CG and SHBG (sex hormone-binding globulin) reduced in PCOS (PCOS, P=0.01). No differences in fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment – insulin resistance) were observed.
WC, WHtR and C-index were reduced in the PCOS group compared to baseline values (P<0.01). UWC were reduced between (P=0.01) and within groups (P<0.01), as well as % BF and 4DC (P<0.01). Both groups
showed MS gains in all exercises (P<0.01) without diferences between the groups. During PRT, 17 women with amenorrhea had menstrual bleeding. Conclusion: The PRT alone can improve
hyperandrogenism, menstrual regularity and BC with reduce central obesity, without metabolic impacts in PCOS group. The PRT promoted MS gains in both group. This results point role beneficial and the
weight reduction need not be the exercise endpoint in this population.