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Abstract Details

Abstract Title

On the Track of IOC Sustainable Games

Abstract Theme

Governance and policy

Type Presentation

Oral presentation

Abstract Authors

Presenter Carla Rocha Araujo - University of Porto, Faculty of Sport (Sport Management) - PT
Maria José Carvalho - University od Porto, Faculty of Sport (Sport Management) - PT
Lamartine DaCosta - Rio de Janeiro State University (Sport Management) - BR

Presentation Details

Room: Urano        Date: 1 September        Time: 11:00:00        Presenter: Carla Isabel Araujo

Abstract Resume

Background:
The Olympic Movement, in particular the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has been incorporating over the Olympic Games (OG) of Modern Era (1894 to 2014) (Furrer, 2002), the concept of Sustainable
Development (SD) defended by the United Nations (WCED, 1987) and set by the Triple Bottom Line (Boff, 2012). The main purpose of this study is to analyse this concept along the 120 years duration of
OGs into four chronological periods (Rubio, 2010). These periods were pre defined based on historical events (Chatziefstathiou, 2005) or correlated with social, environmental and economic dimensions
of SD (Chalkley & Essex, 1999; Chappelet, 2008; Miragaya & DaCosta, 2006; Preuss, 2002). The 1st period starts from IOC birth (1894) until Second World War (WWII); 2nd from 1946 until 1967; 3rd from
1968 Mexico OG until 1991 and the 4th begins at 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development until 2014.

Methods:
Methodology included documental analysis (official and not official) and literature review, based of predetermined keywords and intensive data analysis (Veal & Darcy, 2014). 

Results:
Point specific characterizations were then proposed:
•	1st period with pronounced social concerns, meagre environmental actions (nature was seen as a means of exploitation) and economic unparalleled growth;
•	 2nd period with social and economic disputes and environmental aspects being relegated, ignored or included in urban revitalization. Social dimension was a major concern, special in the spread of
the Olympic Spirit, Promotion of Peace, Fighting for Female Participation and increasing the Olympic Family. The OG were mostly support through public and private funds (economic) and they were used
as a catalyst for urban revitalization and international promotion of the cities;
•	3rd period focus on social dimension, including political and cultural ones, such as ideological dispute between capitalist and communist (who used the OG) and the expansion of the Olympism around
the World despite boycotts and terrorist constraints. This is a period of great economic growth in which environmental issues weren’t prominent, let alone some environmental concerns at Sapporo 1972,
Lake Placid 1980 and Seoul 1988 OG;
•	4th period put more attention on the environment (especially by Winter Games), but they relegated OG social role. At economic level the spread of gigantism (specially Beijing 2008 and Sochi 2014 OG)
became evident, but Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 try to bring SD to a balance between social, environment and economic dimensions.

Conclusions:
In conclusion, it seems that social aspects have always been an inbound strong preoccupation to IOC, but they had lost some encouragement over time. Moreover environment is becoming a main concern to
economy everywhere and specially to cities. Overall, today focus is bringing SD to review the OGs as now being revealed by Olympic Agenda 2020 (International Olympic Committee, 2014) a recent proposal
to renovate the Olympic Movement based in its three main dimensions.

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