Background: The functional requirement resulting from the excessive sports training brings several functional and structural changes to the gymnasts so they have the perfect movement
execution. However, there are different types of gymnastics and each one has their own characteristics. Artistic Gymnastics (A.G.) involves a number of body exercises requiring strength, flexibility
and agility. Rhythmic Gymnastics (R.G.) focuses on the elegance and beauty of its movements which are extremely precise and delicate and demand a high level of flexibility from the gymnasts. The
movements, according to each type of gymnastics, have unique characteristics that influence the injury type and affected part as well as one’s posture. Therefore, the present abstract aims to compare
the movements and injuries between A.G. and R.G.
Methods: In this study, a bibliographic review was conducted in the PubMed, Lilacs e Medline databases. The articles were collected between early April and late May 2016, using the
tags: “Artistic Gymnastics”, “Rhythmic Gymnastics”, “Injuries in Gymnasts” and “Gymnasts Postures”. Articles in English and in Portuguese were used and the exclusion criteria were literature review
articles and articles on men’s gymnasts.
Results: According to the group’s criteria, 13 articles were chosen, from which 8 were on A.G. and 5 on R.G.. Seven of the articles talked about gymnasts postures and 6 of them were
about injuries. According to the articles, the athletes postures in both types of gymnastics are very similar, mostly showing lumbar lordosis. Scoliosis, cervical protrusion, shoulder asymmetry,
thoracic hyperkyphosis, pelvic anteroversion, valgus calcaneus and hyperextension of the knees were also shown. Injuries, on the other hand, show significant differences when athletes of both types
are compared. A.G. athletes are more prone to injury the knees and the ankles because they perform short movements, including body air-rotations and precise landings. R.G. athletes, besides the knees
and ankles injuries, show greater injury incidences in their upper limbs because, unlikely in the A.G., they handle portable apparatus in fast and steady movements.
Conclusions: The characteristic movements in both gymnastics types, besides defining specific posture, are also determining factors to injuries incidences in athletes. Structural
change resulting from these movements showed similar in A.G. and R.G. athletes. On the other hand, due to different mechanical requirements, injuries showed distinct, affecting upper limbs more in
R.G. than in A.G. athletes.