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Abstract Details

Abstract Title

Effect of Light Level on Extroverted and Introverted Swimmers’ Performance: an Exploratory Study

Abstract Theme

Sport psychology

Type Presentation


Abstract Authors

Presenter Ana Carolina Gomes - University of Sao Paulo (School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities) - BR
Cassio Meira Junior - University of Sao Paulo (School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities) - BR
Flávio Pires - University of Sao Paulo (School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities) - BR

Presentation Details

Poster Exhibition Site (Local): Gray - 6        Date: 4 September        Time: 8am to 7pm        Presenter: Ana Gomes

Abstract Resume

Extroverts are known as active and talkative people, while introverts are more quiet and calm. It happens due to cortical activation level of each of them, in the extroverts, these levels are low and
they need to increase their activation, on the other hand, introverts already have high levels of cortical activation and need to reduce these levels, in order to find a comfortable level for both.

This study aimed to analyze, how the effect of bright light can influence the performance of extroverts and introverts swimmers by swimming crawl in a semi-Olympic pool in two different times,
dealing, in the first one, with bright light and in the second one with light deprivation, besides measuring time, heart rate, frequency of stroke and using the Borg scale, to understand how the
personality traits are associated with performance, in an attempt to find the suitable setting for each trait and also to contribute to the development of athletes throughout their careers. In order
to check the swimmer's personality, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) were applied to 20 young and adults swimmers of both sex, in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The results indicated extroverts swimmers seem to have a higher performance in time, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), stroke frequency, than the introverts when there was bright light, while the
introverts show up better results in time and RPE in the light deprivation. The heart rate of both groups increased during the light deprivation, caused by the fear to swim in the dark, but the heart
rate from introverts occurred more regularly.

Personality is considered a set of characteristics that give a pattern of unique and own relationships of each individual. Know them and understand them is essential to deal with several athletes in a
Regarding the results of EPQs, it was observed that 60% of the swimmers tend to be introverts and only 15% have a tendency to extroversion, confirming the theory that athletes from individual sports
are likely to be more introverted than extroverted; the other 25 % were in a neutral range and are known as ambiverts.
In the test performed in the pool, it was observed that the extroverted group performed better on bright light when compared with the introverted. Introverts swimmers, had better results of the RPE
and the time when they were in the light deprivation, reaffirming that individual differences reflect on the neurophysiological functioning contrast, in other words, introverts prefer light
deprivation stimuli to feel comfortable and to decrease the level of cortical activation while extroverts tend to look for bright light stimuli to raise these levels. The level of light appears to
have been capable of influence them.
The stroke frequency from the extroverts decreased considerably when they were swimming in the dark. Introverts athletes also decreased stroke frequency over the stipulated route, however it was not
observed descriptive difference between the different levels of brightness.
It should be noted that the personality is only one factor that can influence the performance of athletes.

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