Background:Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is chronic disease associated with cognitive impairment. Regular exercise training is effective in reducing cognitive impairment, but there are few
studies about the acute effects of exercise on these aspects. Thus, the aim of this study was investigate the effect of acute aerobic exercise in memory and balance, as well as the IGF-1R, GSK-3β and
tau proteins in the hippocampus and cerebellum of diabetic rats induced by alloxan (32 mg / kg).
The study was divided into two experiments. In experiment I, 20 male Wistar rats randomly assigned into groups: control evaluated immediately after exercise (C0), control 24 hours after exercise
(C24), diabetic evaluated immediately after exercise (D0) and diabetic assessed 24 hours after exercise (D24). In the second experiment (n=20), the animals were divided into sedentary control group
(CS), exercise control (EC), sedentary diabetic (SD) and diabetic exercise (DE). Molecular analysis of the hippocampus and cerebellum (pIGF-1R, pGSK-3β and ptau) were performed
immediately after exercise in C0 and D0 groups, and 24 hours after exercise in C24 and D24 groups. In the experimental II, behavioral analyses were performed using body balance testing and object
recognition task. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation error and analyzed using Student's t test and/or two-way ANOVA, with a significance level of p <0.05.
The results showed deficit of short term memory in the DS group and increase in the DE group. Furthermore, the DS group showed higher number of errors in crossing the balance beam. In the cerebellum
there was increase in GSK-3β phosphorylation in C24 and D24 when compared to D0, in addition there was increase IGF-1R in C24 when compared to D0. In the hippocampus, acute exercise was able to
increase phosphorylation of GSK-3β and IGF-1R in C24 and D24 groups when compared to D0 group
Taken together, results show that DM leads to an impairment in short term memory and balance, and acute exercise is able to improve these parameters accompanied by increase in the phosphorylation of
proteins signaling pathway in the hippocampus and cerebellum.