Background:Aerobic and resistance training (AT; RT) performed in the same session [known as combined training (CT)], has been widely recommended for improvement of the health and
reduction of some deleterious effects caused by chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in the metabolism. In relation to these diseases, obesity had become a pandemic with biggest development in
recent years, which is associated a comorbidities such type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, among others that promotes metabolic changes. Thus, to a better understanding of
the metabolism, metabolomics (an approach that allows us to simultaneously identify and quantify metabolites) have been used to detect new bioindicators and its pathways for that allow a better
knowledge of the physiological and biochemical adaptations of the exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate metabolic changes on the metabolism in obese subjects and
find new bioindicators of this possible changes after 24 weeks of CT.
Methods:Twenty-two middle-aged obese men (48.18 ± 6.01 years; body mass index 31.00± 1.45 kg·m-2) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; N = 11) or CT group (N=11). The CT
were performed during 24 weeks, 3 days a week, with 1 hour each session and composed of RT (6 exercises, 3 sets of 6-10 repetitions with 1-min rest between sets) and AT (30 minutes of walking or
running with varying intensity at 50–85% of VO2peak). The maximal strength (for leg press and bench press), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and blood sampling were performed before and after experimental
period. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to identify metabolites and the software Chenomx 7.6 for quantifying. The Fold-Change (Post/Pre) values of metabolites, VO2peak and
strength were calculated. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) were applied using MetaboAnalyst software.
Results:The CT group increased VO2peak and strength (1.12 and 1.20 times, respectively) more than CG group (1.00 and 1.00 times, respectively). Forty-seven metabolites were found,
among them tyrosine, histidine, 2-oxoisocaproate and pyruvate were classified as better discriminators of metabolic changes between groups. After performing a MSEA, was possible to observe that these
metabolites participate in some metabolic pathways used in energy production during exercise, thus proving an important metabolic interconnection for understanding the role of exercise in the
metabolism of this population.
Conclusions:Twenty-four weeks of CT were effective for improve functional parameters and metabolic changes in middle-aged obese men, promoting beneficial changes on the metabolism and
suggesting new bioindicators of metabolic adaptations of these subjects to CT.