Background:Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus(T2DM) is a metabolic diseases which characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin secretion defects or insulin action disorders. The
hippocampus as one of the most important brain regions, is really easy to be impaired by T2DM. Resveratrol and exercise training have been considered useful measures for treating T2DM. However, the
definite mechanism is still unknown.
Methods:75 Male mature T2DM SD rats were divided into RE, R, E and Control groups. Both RE group and E group rats were arranged to loaded swimming 5 days/week,1hour/day. At the same
time, RE group and R group rats needed to take resveratrol with the dosage of 45mg/kg/day, 7 day/week, but the Control group without any treatment. After 8 weeks, we examined the content of Bal-2,
Bax, Caspase-3, and the apoptosis rate of all the hippocampus. Meanwhile, we investigated the changes of hippocampal nerve cells' morphological and ultrastructural structures in CA1 district.
Results:(1)When compared with other 3 groups, the content of Bax, Caspase-3, and the apoptosis rate in the Control group rats decreased with extreme significance (p<0.01), but the
quantity of Bal-2 increased significantly (p<0.05). (2) When compared with other 3 groups, the nerve cells' morphological structures became more worse in Control group rats(p<0.05). It showed that all
the cells' deformation degenerated remarkably, the cell nuclei became smaller, and the nuclear condensation stained more seriously(p<0.05). Simultaneously, the ultrastructures of neurons in CA1
district showed that the amount of the key organelles decreased significantly (p<0.05). The mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum became edema, and the abnormal myelin structure damaged evidently
(p<0.05). (3) RE, E , R group rats could improve the injury degree of hippocampal neurons, but the RE group showed more effective (RE vs. E, RE vs. R, p<0.05).
Conclusions:Exercise training or/and resveratrol could ameliorate the hippocampus of the T2DM rats. The results showed two remedies could ameliorate effectively than the single
treatment. The possible reason was, SIRT1 as an important NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase, exercise training or/and resveratrol could adjust the transcription of these substrates to regulate a
series of biochemical process containing gene silence，life span，cell cycle and apoptosis，glucose and lipid metabolism，inflammatory response and resistance to stress and strengthen the susceptibility
of hippocampus cell to insulin.